https://www.thuliumlab.ru/2023-07-11T13:20:32+00:00Dmitrytreg.dim@gmail.comhttps://github.com/5981Jekyllhttps://www.thuliumlab.ru/blog/cold-atoms/dicke/Doppler broadening and Lamb-Dicke regime2018-06-24T00:00:00+00:00Dmitrytreg.dim@gmail.comhttps://github.com/5981In case of a strong spatial confinement some interesting properties of atomic spectra emerge<h2 id="doppler-broadening">Doppler broadening</h2>
<p>Doppler broadening can be a problem if you wish to perform precise spectroscopy.
For example, consider a clock transition in thulium atoms. Its natural linewidth
is ~1 Hz. However, the cloud of atoms which one observe in order to perform spectroscopy
of this clock transition has a certain velocity distribution. If a cloud is in a
thermalised state it is well described by a Maxwell distribution with a temperature T:</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">P_v = \sqrt{\frac{m}{2\pi kT}}\exp{\left(-\frac{mv^2}{2kT}\right)}</script>
<p>Each velocity provides Doppler shift $f = f_0(1 + v/c)$, thus
transferring the distribution of velocities to the distribution of frequencies:</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">P_f = \frac{c}{f_0}P_v\left( c \left( \frac{f}{f_0}-1 \right) \right)</script>
<p>$f_0$ here is the center frequency of the transition with wavelength ~1.14 µm.
Due to atoms’ thermal movement, their absorption (or emission) spectrum of the
clock transition becomes broadened, with full width at half maximum being</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">\Delta f_{FWHM} = f_0\sqrt{\frac{8kT\ln{2}}{mc^2}}</script>
<p>Laser cooling provides us with the cloud at a temperature of about 10 µK. Mind you,
it is rather low (although we are trying to improve). Still, with the mass of
169 atomic units (for $^{169}$Tm) we get $\Delta f_{FWHM}$ = 46 kHz,
which is greater than natural linewidth of 1 Hz by quite a bit. What do we do, then?</p>
<h2 id="spatial-confinement">Spatial confinement</h2>
<p>Different applications of optical clocks based on neutral atoms make use of optical
lattice for several reasons. Different application of optical clocks based on a
single ion use ion trap for obvious reasons. Both confine particles in a sharp
close-to-harmonic potential. This potential restricts movement of atoms. Does it
influence the Doppler broadening, then? Yes, it should. While it all depends on
several parameters, it is safer to take quantum mechanical approach from the
beginning. We can always go back to classical case later.</p>
<p>The harmonic potential provides us with a set of wave functions and corresponding
energy levels $E_n = \hbar \Omega (n+1/2)$. We have to abide to these energy levels
when we write the conservation law for the process of absorbing/emitting a photon:</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">\hbar \omega = \Delta E_{internal} + \hbar \Omega \Delta n</script>
<p>This simple equation describes absorption/emission of a photon together with any
mechanical movements. It must therefore contain Doppler shift, and it must contain
recoil energy. Somehow they all should be related to $\Delta n$.</p>
<p>Before going any further, let us keep all the relative equations
about quantum harmonic oscillator at hand. I will simply write them down without
any explanation:</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">H = \frac{p^2}{2m} + \frac{1}{2} m \Omega^2 z^2 \\
z = \sqrt{\frac{\hbar}{2m\Omega}} (a^\dagger + a) \\
p = i\sqrt{\frac{\hbar m \Omega}{2}} (a^\dagger - a) \\
H = \hbar \Omega(a^\dagger a + 1/2) \\
a^\dagger a |n> = n |n></script>
<h2 id="lamb-dicke-regime">Lamb-Dicke regime</h2>
<p>We want to describe the effect of photon absorption/emission on atomic wave
function in a harmonic potential. For that purpose we use the displacement
operator for the momentum: $\exp (i k z)$. In the basis of vibrational states,
we get probability amplitudes $\langle n’| \exp (i k z) |n \rangle$ for a
transition $|n\rangle \rightarrow |n’\rangle$.
Introducing the following parameter, we get:</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">\eta^2 = \frac{\hbar k^2}{2 m \Omega} = \frac{\omega_{recoil}}{\Omega} = \left( \pi \frac{a_0}{\lambda} \right)^2 \\
\exp (i k z) = \exp (-i \eta (a^\dagger + a))</script>
<p>Lamb-Dicke regime is the case of small $\eta\sqrt{n+0.5}$. We can expand the exponent:</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">\langle n'| \exp (-i \eta (a^\dagger + a)) |n \rangle = \delta_{n',n} \left( 1-\eta^2(n+1/2) \right) - i \eta \left( \sqrt{n'} \delta_{n',n+1} + \sqrt{n} \delta_{n',n-1} \right)</script>
<p>We see that $\Delta n = n’ - n \neq 0$ is very unlikely, and $|\Delta n| > 1$ even more so.
Generally atom does not change its state in the harmonic potential while emitting/absorbing
photon. And according to $\hbar \omega = \Delta E_{internal} + \hbar \Omega \Delta n$
we are unlikely to witness the influence of any motional phenomena, i.e. Doppler
shift or recoil.</p>
<p>This is very much like the Mössbauer effect (phononless nuclear resonance). Only
instead of a solid that bounds atomic nuclei, here we have our huge setup that
gets all the recoil momentum from the photon.</p>
<h2 id="doppler-broadening-again">Doppler broadening again</h2>
<p>If we want to get back to the classical picture, for large $n$ the matrix element
mentioned above becomes Bessel function:</p>
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">\left| \langle n+\Delta n| \exp (-i \eta (a^\dagger + a)) |n \rangle \right| = \left| J_{\Delta n} \left( 2 \eta \sqrt{n} \right) \right|</script>
<p>which peaks as a function of $\Delta n$ near $2 \eta \sqrt{n}$. $\Delta n$ gives
us the frequency shift, and $\sqrt{n}$ proportional to velocity. Thus we come back
to the Doppler shift, and after considering thermal distribution of velocities -
to the Doppler broadening. You can see the transformation to classical picture below. Here $\nu_t = \Omega/2\pi$, $\nu_r = \omega_{recoil}/2\pi$ and $T$ is temperature of the atomic ensemble.</p>
<div class="singleIMG">
<img src="https://www.thuliumlab.ru/images/cold-atoms/lamb-dicke.gif" alt="Absorption spectra for different confinements" />
</div>
<h2 id="reference">Reference</h2>
<p>This post was mainly inspired by the lecture by Wolfgang Ketterle and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.58.699">this work</a>.</p>
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2018-06-24T00:00:00+00:00